Moritz Stefaner's —the illustration on the cover of The Truthful Art is one of his visualizations,— so I would like to recommend that you take a look at his latest project and to the very detailed article about it. I wish more designers wrote process pieces like that.
Don't navigate just the map. Click on any of the dashes and notice the charts that display observations versus predictions. It's an elegant solution. In his article, Moritz mentions that he reviewed several scientific papers (like this one) to better understand how to display uncertainty in charts and maps. This will be useful for me to explain to students why it is crucial to study visualization principles really well while also learning software tools and programming languages.
A side note: Doesn't this project remind you of Edmond Halley's famous map of wind directions? Here it is: